The channel conductance was determined by the product of voltage-dependent activation (m) and inactivation (h) gates, and for the Ca2+-activated channels a Ca2+-dependent activation gate (z)
Equations describing the voltage-dependent gates were described from the classic Hodgkin-Huxley  scheme
Activation rates for Ca2+-dependent gates were determined by a dissociation constant A and a time constant B
For the Ca2+ channels the Nernst potential  was computed continuously. Rectification of Ca2+ channels was not modeled using the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz (GHK) equation  because dendritic membrane potentials in this study stayed within a range where Ca2+ channels can be considered ohmic (i.e., below -20 mV; Fig. 4.15 in  ). Using the simulation results from the final model, we estimate that using the GHK equation with an appropriately scaled maximum conductance ( ) to compensate for differences in driving force would cause only small changes in the amplitude of dendritic Ca2+ currents (mean difference 0.7 %, maximum 4.5 %).